Causes of OSHA Citations

The bench grinder is an often cited shop tool.This information was originally published in the year 2000.



Use a 1/4″ gauge and a log sheet to keep the tool rest on your bench grinder in compliance.


OSHA’s Top 25 Cited Standards

  1. No Lock Out / Tag Out procedures.
  2. No written Employee Hazard Communication program.
  3. Poor or non-existent machine guarding.
  4. No employee Hazard Communication training.
  5. No or improper labels on hazardous materials.
  6. No or incomplete (columns not totaled) OSHA 200 illness & injury log.
  7. Missing or inadequate MSDSs.
  8. Improper guarding of ropes, belts, chains, and drives.
  9. Denied access to employee medical records.
  10. Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery (misadjusted tool rests on tool guards).
  11. Flexible electrical cords and cables.
  12. No or inadequate respiratory protection program.
  13. Broken or missing electrical cabinets, boxes, and fittings.
  14. Improperly stored flammable and combustible liquids.
  15. Improper electrical grounding.
  16. Improper guarding of pulleys.
  17. Improper use of abrasive wheel machinery.
  18. No OSHA poster displayed.
  19. Electrical safety general requirements.
  20. No or non-working emergency drenching showers.
  21. Open sided floors with no guardrails or toe boards.
  22. No guarding of gears, sprockets, and chains.
  23. No or improper personal protective equipment.
  24. Poor housekeeping.
  25. Inadequate or removed guards on radial arm saws.



This page, and all contents, are Copyright © 2000 by ANILINE ENVIRONMENTAL, Cleveland, Ohio USA.



An Explanation
Note: This information was originally published in 1997.

The 1997 ACGIH TLV
The current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist TLVs(tm) (threshold limit value) for Silica – are:
Cristobalite [14464-46-1] (1986) – 0.05 mg/m³ (j)
Quartz [14808-60-7] (1986) – 0.1 mg/m³ (j)
Tridymite [15468-32-3] (1986) – 0.05 mg/m³ (j)
Tripoli [1317-95-9] (1986) – 0.1 mg/m³ (j) of contained respirable dust.
Note (j): These TLVs are for the respirable fraction of particulate matter for the substance listed . The concentration of respirable dust for the application of this limit is to be determined from the fraction passing a size selector with the characteristics defined in the “C” paragraph of Appendix D.
That is: a cyclone device with a median cut off point for particles from 3.5 to 4.0 um operating at a rate of 1.7 lpm (liters per minute) for an Mine Safety Appliances cyclone or 2.6 lpm for an aluminum SKC cyclone.
The magnitude of the personal exposure of silica can be determined by the quite straight forward procedure of comparing the laboratory results for silica to the TLV.
Currently both OSHA and MSHA use the ACGIH 1973 TLVs for their legal exposure limits or PELs (permissible exposure limits). The agencies believe this limit is more valid for mixtures containing lower percentages of silica.

The OSHA / MSHA PEL calculation serves effectively to lower the PELs for Respirable Dust (5 mg/m³) and Total Dust (10 mg/m³) down to levels which take into account the adverse health effects of breathing silica dust. Thus workers in ceramics plant would be more at risk for lung disease breathing 10% silica dust than non-silica dust.
Quartz (Respirable) PEL = 10 mg/m³ ÷ %Silica + 2
Quartz (Total Dust) PEL = 30 mg/m³ ÷ %Silica + 2
For Cristobalite and Tridymite use 1/2 the value calculated from the formula for quartz.
The % of silica or %SiO(2) [silicon dioxide] is found on your lab report.
Remember you must compare the respirable dust or total dust exposure monitoring results to the calculated PELs. Comparing the raw numbers of the silica results to the calculated PELs is like comparing apples to oranges. Remember you are calculating a PEL for a mixture so you must compare it to the monitoring results for a mixture to make a valid exposure determination.

Steven R. Pressman

With thanks to ACGIH, Sharon Dannan, Cleveland OSHA Office and Fred Usbek CIH, Phillp Analytical (formally MDS Laboratories) of Reading, PA.


This page, and all contents, are Copyright © 1997 by ANILINE ENVIRONMENTAL, Cleveland, Ohio USA.

Preventing Ice Dams to Preserve Indoor Air Quality

Note: This information was posted originally in the year 2000.

Over the past several winters we have been testing an anti-ice damming insulation system. Ice damming is an indoor air quality problem in colder climates. Ice dams occur when heat escaping from the house melts the snow on the eave line into solid ice. When the weather warms water leaks under the eaves providing moisture to encourage the growth of fungus which thrives in moist, dark, wet places. The spores given off contain several toxins, the most significant of which are mycotoxins which are very irritating to the upper respiratory tract. Mycotoxins may cause headaches, nose bleeds, and immune system suppression. Some fungus, such as, Alternaria are known allergens. 
While air cleaning devices such as the Clairity (no longer manufactured) are effective in removing mold and fungus spores from the air, it is best to prevent the problem from occurring. Usually keeping the wood of the roofing system dry will cure the problem. Also, replacement of materials usually is more effective than the application of fungicides.
The immediate cure is to remove the snow, that is the moisture supply from the roof. In North-east Ohio where I live the problem usually occurs on the flat or shed roofs of family rooms attached to the house. In the case of flat roofs easy access is available thru the second story by door or window to shovel off the roof. I recommend a plastic shovel or push broom. For the shed roof a “roof rake” is available in most hardware stores. this consists of a rake like shovel with about four extension pieces. With the roof rake you can clear the snow off the shed roof without leaving the ground. Either procedure should not damage intact roofing materials. And while “roof raking” may go down in history as the stupid chore of the new millennium, it is infinitely preferable to tripping over several dozen drip catching buckets.
The long term cure lies in improved insulation and gutters. Gutter heaters are of no immediate help. Several gutter manufactures offer gutter covers, such as, the Gutter Helmet™. These covers direct water into the gutter while allowing leaves and snow to fall off. The insulation system I installed in my study ceiling consists of standard R-19 fiberglass insulation backed with Reflectix™ radiant heat barrier (aluminum coated bubble wrap). This system keeps the heat inside to preventing the snow on the roof from melting. Also in the summer when the rest of the house is air conditioned , the study is about five degrees cooler.

Steven R. Pressman


This page, and all contents, are Copyright © 2000 by ANILINE ENVIRONMENTAL, Cleveland, Ohio USA.

Greetings from Steven Pressman, Industrial Hygienist!

My name is Steven Pressman. I am an Industrial Hygienist in General Practice working in Cleveland, Ohio since 1988. This new WordPress blog is meant to augment the ANILINE ENVIRONMENTAL ANI-Gram Newsletter. In the future my clients will be e-mailed the newsletter and the content will be posted here. In addition to posts concerning industrial hygiene, safety, and environmental issues — watch for new categories such disaster preparedness and workplace violence prevention. This blog is meant for the general public, as well as my colleagues in the industrial hygiene and safety field. It is especially directed toward small business owners who have constituted the majority of my clients over the last 25 years. My current website is where you can access the old IH Know How by the link at the very middle of the page.